IALA Maritime Buoyage System


TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE ….. 13

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ….. 14

HISTORICAL SUMMARY ….. 15

INTRODUCTION …… 20

CHAPTER 1 – HYDROGRAPHIC PUBLICATIONS

British Publications ….. 22


Government Publications issued by the British Admiralty ….. 22

Private Publications

Europe ….. 24
Mediterranean ….. 27
Indian Ocean ….. 29
        Australia ….. 29
        South China Sea ….. 29
        Pacific ….. 29
        Atlantic ….. 30
        Caribbean ….. 30
        South Atlantic ….. 31

Inland Waterways ….. 32

General Remarks ….. 35

American Publications

General
        Government Publications issued by the USCG ….. 36
        Government Publications issued by the OCS and NOAA ….. 37

        A. Nautical charts for the American coast and the islands in their possessions ….. 37
        B. Sailing directions ….. 39

        Government Publications issued by the DMAHC ….. 41
        Government Publications issued by the Army Corps of Engineers ….. 43

        Private Publications ….. 43

Comments ….. 44

CHAPTER 2 – THE LIGHTS

How to look up a light in the List of Lights
        Names of lights ….. 46
        Location of lights ….. 47
        Geographical position of lights ….. 48

Characteristics of lights
        Character of a light ….. 48
        Period of a light …… 56
        Phase of a light ….. 57
        Number of lights ….. 57
        Colour of lights ….. 57

Elevation
        Indication in the Lists of Lights ….. 58
        Indication on charts ….. 59
        Use of elevation ….. 59

Intensity
        The range of a light ….. 63
        Luminous range ….. 71
        Nominal range ….. 74
        Geographical range ….. 76
        Mean range ….. 76

Indication of the range in the Lists of Lights ….. 81
Indication of the range on charts ….. 82
Indication of lights on charts ….. 85

CHAPTER 3 – TYPES OF LIGHTS

Sector lights ….. 90
Leading lights ….. 103
Direction lights ….. 106
Unwatched lights ….. 109
Aeromarine lights ….. 109
Aero lights ….. 109
Obstruction lights ….. 110
Occasional lights ….. 110
Fog detector light ….. 110
Daytime lights ….. 111
Vertical lights – Horizontal lights ….. 111

CHAPTER 4 – FOG SIGNALS

General ….. 113
Types of fog signals ….. 113
Characteristics of fog signals ….. 114

CHAPTER 5 – LANDMARKS

General ….. 116
Categories of landmarks ….. 117
Description of landmarks ….. 119
The height ….. 120

CHAPTER 6 – LIGHTS VESSELS – LIGHT TOWERS and LANBYS

General ….. 122
Watch buoys ….. 124
Indication in the lists of lights ….. 124
Indication on charts ….. 125
Risk of collision with light vessels …. 126
Withdrawal of a lights vessel ….. 126
Replacement of light vessels …. 126

Light towers ….. 127
Floating structures ….. 128
Oceanographic and weather buoys ….. 128

CHAPTER 7 – PLATFORMS AT SEA

I. PLATFORMS
        General ….. 131
        Identification panels ….. 131
        Lights ….. 132
        Fog signals ….. 132
        Other markings ….. 132
        Indication on charts ….. 133

II. OFFSHORE WIND TURBINES
        General ….. 134
        Marking of individual wind turbines ….. 134
        Marking of groups of wind turbines ….. 135
        Sound signals ….. 136
        Indication on charts ….. 136

Extract IALA Recommendation O-139

CHAPTER 8 – BUOYAGE

GENERAL ….. 145
        Construction of buoys ….. 145
        Body of the buoys ….. 146
        Mooring ….. 147
        Superstructure ….. 148

ORDINARY BUOYS ….. 152
        Beacons ….. 152
        Indication of beacons on charts ….. 153
        Spar buoys ….. 154
        Ordinary buoys ….. 154

LIGHTED BUOYS
        General purpose buoys ….. 157

PILLAR BUOYS
        Pillar buoys used in European, waters ….. 161
        Indication of buoys on charts ….. 164

THE LANTERN
        Propane gas buoys ….. 166
        Acetylene buoys ….. 166
        Electric buoys ….. 166
        Indication on charts ….. 168

THE TOPMARK ….. 168
        Indication on charts ….. 170

RADAR REFLECTOR
        Indication on charts ….. 171
        RACON ….. 172
        REFLECTORS ….. 172

FOG SIGNAL ….. 173

THE COLOUR ….. 175

NAME AND NUMBER ….. 176

SUMMARY ….. 177
COMMENT ….. 178

Pillar buoys in American waters ….. 183

Indication on Charts ….. 191

CHAPTER 9 - IALA BUOYGE SYSTEMS

INTRODUCTION ….. 195
ONE SYSTEM, TWO REGIONS ….. 195
GENERAL PRINCIPLE OF THE SYSTEM ….. 197

CHAPTER 10 – THE IALA MARITIME BUOYAGE SYSTEM

Basic principles of the Combined Cardinal and Lateral System ….. 200

Description of the Combined Cardinal and Lateral System – General Remarks

        Scope ….. 200
        Types of marks ….. 200
        Characteristics of marks ….. 201
        Day colors ….. 201
        Shapes of marks ….. 201
        Topmarks ….. 201
        Colours and characteristics of lights ….. 202
        Piers and jetties ….. 202
        Radar reflectors ….. 202

REGION "A" ONLY

LATERAL MARKS

        Description of Lateral marks ….. 203
        Port hand marks ….. 203
        Starboard hand marks ….. 203
        Red-Green ….. 204
        Direction of buoyage ….. 204
        Symbol ….. 206
        Variations ….. 207
        Obstructions …… 210
        Green – Starboard side ….. 210

PREFERRED CHANNEL MARKS

        General ….. 216
        MODIFIED LATERAL MARKS ….. 217
        Preferred channel to the right (or to starboard) ….. 217
        Modified Port hand marks ….. 217
        Preferred channel to the left (or to port) ….. 218
        Modified Starboard hand marks ….. 218

REGION "B" ONLY

LATERAL MARKS

        Description of Lateral marks ….. 221
        Port hand marks ….. 221
        Starboard hand marks ….. 221
        Green – Red ….. 222
        Direction of buoyag ….. 223e
        Symbol ….. 226
        Variations ….. 227
        Obstructions ….. 230
        Red – Starboard side ….. 230
        Radar reflector 231
        Name ….. 231
        Optical reflector ….. 231
        Beacons ….. 232
        Light vessels, light towers and lanbys ….. 232
        Indication on charts ….. 232

PREFERRED CHANNEL MARKS

        Modified Lateral Marks ….. 237
        Preferred channel to the right (or to starboard) ….. 237
        Modified Port hand marks …… 237
        Preferred channel to the left (or to port) ….. 239
        Modified Starboard hand marks ….. 239

REGIONS "A" and "B"

CARDINAL MARKS

        North Quadrant (from NW to NE of the point of interest) ….. 242
        East Quadrant (from NE to SE of the point of interest) ….. 243
        South Quadrant (from SE to SW of the point of interest) ….. 244
        West Quadrant (from SW to NW of the point of interest) ….. 244
        Points of interest ….. 247
        Obstructions ….. 247
        Bifurcation and junction of channels ….. 247
        Bend in a channel ….. 250

ISOLATED DANGER MARKS ….. 261

SAFE WATER MARKS ….. 264

SPECIAL MARKS ….. 269

USE OF SPECIAL MARKS
        Spoil ground marks ….. 271
        Military exercise zone ….. 271
        Watch buoys ….. 271
        Quarantaine are marks ….. 271
        Cable or underwater pipelines ….. 271
        Ocean Data-acquisition System marks – Hydrographic instrument marks (ODAS) …. 273
        Recreation marksd ….. 273
        Traffic separation marks ….. 273
        Supplementary marks ….. 274

NEW DANGER MARKS ….. 275

GENERAL REMARKS AND SUMMARY ….. 279

ADDITIONAL PICTURES ….. 279