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Table of Contents


NAVIGATION

Partim 1

Prof. Capt. M. Dauwe

Student’s Workbook

Table of Contents

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Cover

Course Objectives ….. 2

Training Objective ….. 3

BASIC NAVIGATION (Module 1.1)

1.1.1 Definitions

a. From reality to Globe ….. 4

Geodesy ….. 4
Geoid ….. 4
Plumbline ….. 4
Vertical Deflections ….. 5
Geodetic Datum ….. 7
WGS (World Geodetic System) ….. 7
The Earth as an Ellipsoid ….. 8
Datum ….. 12
From ellipsoid to globe ….. 13

b. References ….. 14

c. Basic elements ….. 17

Coordinate Systems ….. 17
Latitudes and Longitudes ….. 17

d. Magnetic elements on earth ….. 20

Origin of Earth’s magnetism ….. 20
Magnetic charts ….. 23

1.1.2 Globe – Charts

a. From sphere to chart ….. 25

b. Classes of charts ….. 26

c. Middle latitude chart and its properties ….. 29

d. Mercator chart and its properties ….. 32

1.1.3 Directions and bearings

a. From true to compass ….. 37

Magnetic compass ….. 37
Compass North ….. 40
Total error ….. 41
Gyro compass ….. 41
Gyroscopic error ….. 42

b. Courses and headings ….. 43

Dead reckoning principles ….. 45

c. Compass directions ….. 45

What reference lines do exist? ….. 46

d. Bearings ….. 50

1.1.4 Sailings

a. Introduction geat circle and rhumbline ….. 51

What is a rhumb line ….. 51
What is great circle sailing? ….. 51

b. Rhumb line sailing principles ….. 52

c. Parallel sailing ….. 53

What is parallel sailing ….. 54
Course and latitude sailing ….. 54

d. Middle Latitude sailing ….. 54

e. Mercator sailing ….. 57

Course (Mercator construction) ….. 58
Distane ….. 58


BASIC ASTRO-NAVIGATION (Module 1.2)

1.2.1 The universe

a. Definition and universal units ….. 61

The story of creation ….. 61
What is the Universe? ….. 63

Units
Astronomical Unit ….. 64
Light year ….. 64
Parsec ….. 64

Abbreviations and terms

Starcluster ….. 65
NGC ….. 66
M ….. 66
Dwarf ….. 66
Travelling through the Universe ….. 67
14 Billion LY from the Sun: The visible universe ….. 67
1 Billion LY from the Sun: The neightbouring Superclusters ….. 68
100 Million LY from the Sun: The Virgo Supercluster ….. 69
5 Million LY from the Sun: The Local Group ….. 70
500 000 LY from the Sun: The Satellite Galaxies ….. 71
50 000 LY from the Sun: The Milky Way Galaxy ….. 72
250 LY from the Sun: The Solar Neighborhood ….. 73
12.5 LY from the Sun: The Nearest Stars ….. 74

b. Phenomenia ….. 75

Nebulae ….. 75
Comets ….. 75
Meteorites ….. 76
Interstellar dust ….. 76

c. Milky Way ….. 77

d. Stars and Constellations ….. 80

But what is a star ….. 80
What are star catalogues? ….. 80
What is a constellation? … 81

1.2.2 Solar System

a. Composition ….. 84

The Origin of the Solar System ….. 84

b. Earth rotation and revolution ….. 85

Earth rotation ….. 85
Earth revolutions ….. 87
The equinoxes ….. 90
The solstices ….. 91

c. Apparent and Absolute movements ….. 91

Apparent movement of the Sun and Ecliptica ….. 92
Absolute movement of earth on its orbit ….. 92

d. Precession and nutation ….. 93

Nutation ….. 97
Bary Center ….. 98

1.2.3. Synodic and Sideral movements

a. Basic theory ….. 99

b. Aries ….. 100

What is SHA (Sideral Hour Angle)? ….. 101
What is RA (Right Ascention)? ….. 101
What is GHA (Greenwich Hour Angle)? ….. 102

c. Relations ….. 102

1.2.4 The Moon

a. Rotation and revolution ….. 105

Rotation ….. 105
Revolution ….. 105
Anomalistic Month ….. 106

b. Libration ….. 107

c. Phases and appearance ….. 111

1.2.5 Local geocentrical sphere

a. Ecliptic coordinates ….. 112

b. Celestial sphere ….. 112

References of celestial sphere ….. 115
Cordinates ….. 115

c. Local sphere ….. 116

d. Geographical sphere ….. 118

e. Local geocentrical sphere (composite) ….. 119

f. Navigation triangle ….. 121

g. Visible/unvisible and circumpolar bodies ….. 122

1.2.6 From observation by sextant to true altitude

a. Index correction ….. 124

b. Visible and true horizon ….. 125

c. Earth’s atmospheric disturbances ….. 126

d. Parallax ….. 128

e. Semi diameter ….. 130

f. Summary ….. 131